An extended epidemic model that accounts for uncertainty and the latest data can better predict the evolution of pandemics.
Malicious COVID-19 online content -- including racist content, disinformation and misinformation -- thrives and spreads online by bypassing the moderation efforts of individual social media platforms, according to a new study by researchers at the George Washington University.
Fearsome and powerful, hurricanes can wreak massive destruction when they hit land. But while most hurricanes then weaken, others can strengthen again into extratropical cyclones and caused further damage inland. Now, researchers at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University have used simulations to uncover the presence of a cold core inside decaying hurricanes - an unexpected discovery that could help forecasters predict the level of extreme weather that communities farther inland may face.
People are more likely to cooperate with those they see as 'good.' Using a mathematical model, University of Pennsylvania researchers found it's possible to design systems that assess and broadcast participants' reputations, leading to high levels of cooperation and adherence.
A new infectious disease model that accounts for people's 'level of caution' or 'sense of safety' accurately captures surges and declines in COVID-19 cases since March 2020 -- and could help predict how the pandemic will eventually end.
Researchers from Skoltech have designed and conducted experiments measuring gas permeability under various conditions for ice-containing sediments mimicking permafrost. Their results can be useful both in tracing methane emission in high latitudes and in modeling and testing techniques for gas production from Arctic reservoirs. The study also showed that the dissociation of gas hydrates can lead to permeability increase. This, in turn, will lead to methane emissions into the atmosphere, causing a variety of environmental and technological impacts.
Researchers from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and Fathom Bristol used a hydraulic model to consider the degree to which human-caused climate change may have affected flooding in Houston in 2017 during Hurricane Harvey. Resources at the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center were used to quantify the increase in Houston flood area and depth and to host a portal where other scientists and the public can access and explore the resulting data.
Financial institutions are linked together in a global web of interactions whose structure can be analyzed quantitatively by means of network theory. Today, 15 years after the 2007-2008 financial crisis, the role of networks for monitoring financial stability is widely recognized. Both policymakers and researchers agree that systemic risk has to be studied and managed by adopting a network perspective.
The COVID-19 pandemic has made clear the importance of understanding precisely how diseases spread throughout networks of transportation. In a paper publishing on Thursday in the IAM Journal on Applied Mathematics, Stephen Kirkland (University of Manitoba), Zhisheng Shuai (University of Central Florida), P. van den Driessche (University of Victoria), and Xueying Wang (Washington State University) study the way in which changes in a network of multiple interconnected communities impact the ensuing spread of disease.
Researchers from York University and the University of British Columbia have found social media use to be one of the factors related to the spread of COVID-19 within dozens of countries during the early stages of the pandemic. The researchers say this finding resembles other examples of social media misinformation ranging from the initial phase of vaccine rollout to the 2021 Capitol riot in the United States.