Proper chromosome segregation into two future daughter cells requires the mitotic spindle to elongate in anaphase. However, although some candidate proteins are implicated in this process, the molecular mechanism that drives spindle elongation in human cells has been unknown, until now! Researchers at the Croatian Ru?er Boškovi? Institute (RBI) have discovered the exact molecular mechanism of bridging microtubules sliding and its role in proper distribution of genetic material during cell division.
Researchers from Osaka University used innovative imaging techniques to demonstrate symmetric collective alignment of nuclei in the muscle cells of the anterior midgut of the Drosophila embryo. This 'collective nuclear behavior' further influences bilateral asymmetry in the development of internal organs. A clear understanding of the factors that influence the shape and location of viscera will help inform future research into experimental, and eventually therapeutic, organ regeneration technology.
A previously unreported anatomical structure named the 'cantil' has been described in the popular plant model, Arabidopsis thaliana. Scientists from The Pennsylvania State University, USA, reveal that the cantil forms between the stem and flower-bearing stalk when flowering is delayed. Published in the journal Development, this study highlights that there are still discoveries to be made, even in some of the most meticulously studied species, and provides new clues for understanding conditional growth in plants.
Fewer Atlantic mangrove fiddler crab embryos survived in a warmer, more acid environment mimicking conditions forecast for the end of this century. Given the important ecological role of this invertebrate in mangroves, the researchers warn of a potential cascade effect.
Researchers at the University of Kansas found high vaccine hesitancy among women leaving incarceration, a substantial and vulnerable population in the United States. However, a web-based health app proved effective at boosting the group's health literacy.
In polymicrogyria, the cortex of the brain has irregular, small folds and disorganization in its cell layers, leading to intellectual/developmental disability and epilepsy. This study of four patients with polymicrogyria caused by a mutation in the gene ATP1A3 revealed surprises about the role of a common ion channel pump in early brain development.
Male infertility affects around 8-12% of men globally, with over 20 million cases known. Now, researchers at Guangzhou Women and Children's Medical Center, China, led by Na Li and Ling Sun, may be able to offer infertile men a glimpse of hope, after discovering a new protein that controls male fertility in mice. These findings, published in the journal Development, pinpoint a new potential target to treat the underlying causes of male infertility in humans.
Medical University of South Carolina researchers have discovered a gatekeeper protein that destines developing cells in an embryo to become liver cells. It exposes the genetic material of the cells and marks them as 'ready' for differentiation, i.e., transformation into liver cells, when developmental conditions are right. The findings, published in Cell Reports, could help scientists to better understand why liver cells do not develop correctly in children with inherited liver diseases.
Many animals have evolved camouflage tactics for self-defense, but some butterflies and moths have taken it even further: They've developed transparent wings, making them almost invisible to predators. A team led by Marine Biological Laboratory (MBL) scientists studied the development of one such species, the glasswing butterfly, Greta oto, to see through the secrets of this natural stealth technology.