A new biomimetic culture system mimics the environment of a living organ through continuous electrical stimulation and oxygenation, maintaining viability and functionality of heart slices for six days. Previous culture systems maintained functional heart slices for no more than 24 hours. The extended viability time will enable improved preclinical testing of drugs and gene therapies for effectiveness and toxicity.
Structures inside rare bacteria are similar to those that power photosynthesis in plants today, suggesting the process is older than assumed.
After nerve injury, the protein complex mTORC1 takes over an important function in skeletal muscle to maintain the neuromuscular junction, the synapse between the nerve and muscle fiber. Researchers at the University of Basel's Biozentrum have now shown that the activation of mTORC1 must be tightly balanced for a proper response of the muscle to nerve injury. The study published in «Nature Communications» opens new insights into muscle weakness related to neuromuscular diseases or caused by ageing.
Ribosomes, the essential machinery used for protein synthesis is recycled after each one round of translation. An enzyme called ABCE1 is responsible for this process and turns out to be remarkably plastic as Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU) in Munich biophysicists report.
When cells change to a more specialized type, we call this process cellular differentiation. Scientists have revealed that protein secretions by skin cells known as keratinocytes control the differentiation of subsurface skin fat cells. This discovery could potentially help to treat obesity. Associate Professor Takehiko Ueyama and Professor Naoaki Saito at the Biosignal Research Center of Kobe University led the research team, and the findings were published on July 24 in the online edition of the Journal of Investigative Dermatology.
An international collaboration led by scientists mainly at Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology (TUAT) , Japan, has found that bone and muscle mass are regulated by the altered gravity. The experiments were done in space using Kibo, a ISS module developed by JAXA, and on the ground.
Researchers have discovered that some protein-misfolding disorders may arise from a single, previously unrecognized cause: a jam at a specific step in a cellular shipping network called the secretory pathway, which delivers proteins either to the cell surface or one of the cell's protein-disposal systems. They have also found a compound that corrects for this in lab and animal models.
HIV-infected cells release vesicles that contain a viral protein called Nef, impairing cholesterol metabolism and triggering inflammation in uninfected bystander cells, according to a study published July 25, 2019 in the open-access journal PLOS Pathogens by Dmitri Sviridov of the Baker Heart and Diabetes Institute in Australia, and colleagues.
A surprising new discovery in mouse models reveals a previously unknown role for pain in immunity and has implications for treating autoimmune diseases.
Human artificial chromosomes (HACs) could be useful tools for both understanding how mammalian chromosomes function and creating synthetic biological systems, but for the last 20 years, they have been limited by an inefficient artificial centromere. In the journal Cell on July 25, researchers announce that they have made progress on this key component.