Getting energy and nutrients from the environment -- that is, eating -- is such an important function that it has been regulated through sophisticated mechanisms over hundreds of millions of years. Some of these mechanisms are only now beginning to be unraveled. A group at the Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO) has found one of their key components -- a switch that controls the ability of organisms to adapt to low cellular nutrient levels.
Researchers from the University of Vienna, the Austrian Academy of Sciences and the Perimeter Institute report in the latest issue of Physical Review Letters that nonlocality is a universal property of the world, regardless of how and at what speed quantum particles move.
Chemokine receptors, located at the surface of many immune cells, play an important role in their function. However, despite the importance of this family of receptors, their activation mechanism remains poorly understood. A research consortium (UNIGE/UNIBAS/PSI) has succeeded in decoding the activation mechanism of the CCR5 receptor, a member of this family implicated in several diseases such as HIV/AIDS, cancer, and the respiratory complications of COVID-19.
An international team including researchers from The University of Tokyo Institute of Industrial Science has developed spherical colloidal particles for the visualization of rotational dynamics. The two-color fluorescent particles have an off-center core that allows tracking of dense suspensions using microscopy. The researchers observed coupling between the rotation of charged particles, correlation between local crystallinity and rotational diffusivity, and "slip-stick" friction between particles. The findings will enhance the understanding of biological systems and industrial processes.
The accumulation of micro- and nanoplastics in the environment continues at an alarming rate. A radiolabelling technique developed at the University of Helsinki made it possible to monitor the movement and accumulation of plastics in the mouse body, as well as their elimination from it.
Examining an iron chalcogenide high-temperature superconductor, an international team of researchers has found that just before the material fully enters the nematic state, electronic nematicity first appears in nanoscale patches on its surface. In addition, minute stretching of the material, or strain, can induce local nematicity, which in turn suppresses superconductivity, according to a report in Nature Physics.
While air-borne droplets bounce off commonly used plexiglass dividers, they stick to surfaces coated with the new material, then get absorbed and dry up.
Despite rapid development of EVs, the safety of the Li-ion batteries remains a concern as they are as a fire and explosion risk. Among the various approaches to tackle this issue, Korean researchers have used semiconductor technology to improve the safety of Li-ion batteries. A research team has succeeded in inhibiting the growth of dendrites, crystals with multiple branches that cause EV battery fires by forming protective semiconducting passivation layers on the surface of Li electrodes.
New research published in BMJ Open shows that community pharmacy could play a 'key clinical role' in the future of COVID-19 vaccination programmes, according to a study led by Aston University in Birmingham, UK, in collaboration with UK and international researchers.
Nanoengineers at the University of California San Diego have developed immune cell-mimicking nanoparticles that target inflammation in the lungs and deliver drugs directly where they're needed. As a proof of concept, the researchers filled the nanoparticles with the drug dexamethasone and administered them to mice with inflamed lung tissue. Inflammation was completely treated in mice given the nanoparticles, at a drug concentration where standard delivery methods did not have any efficacy.