Experts have been unable to explain why cells from bacteria to humans leak essential chemicals necessary for growth into their environment. New mathematical models reveal that leaking metabolites -- substances involved in the chemical processes to sustain life with production of complex molecules and energy -- may provide cells both selfish and selfless benefits.
In 1988, a 6.9 magnitude earthquake struck near the northern Armenian city of Spitak. The temblor destroyed cities and is estimated to have killed between 25,000 and 35,000 people, many of whom were schoolchildren. The latest findings from a long-term, UCLA-led study reveal that children who survived the quake and received psychotherapy soon after have experienced health benefits into adulthood.
Standard comfort measurements used to design heating and cooling systems share a common flaw, according to new research. The researchers said the error was caused by the standard instrument used to measure thermal effects of radiant heating and cooling. The instrument and associated formulas used to calculate comfort based on the sensor's readings do not properly account for air flow called free convection. The failure led to temperature errors of over two degrees Celsius.
Research by an international team of scientists led by University of New Mexico Professor Yemane Asmerom suggests contraction of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) during a warming Earth, leading in turn to drying of the Neotropics, including Central America, and aggravating current trends of social unrest and mass migration.
In her AAAS talk, ASU researcher Katie Cramer outlines the evidence of the long-ago human footprints that set the stage for the recent coral reef die-offs we are witnessing today. Her studies have examined the origins of Caribbean coral reef declines by tracking changes over the past 3,000 years in the composition of a variety of fossils found in reef sediment cores she collected from Panama, including coral skeletons, fish teeth, urchin spines, mollusk shells, and others.
The left and right side of the brain are involved in different tasks. This functional lateralization and associated brain asymmetry are well documented in humans. Scientists now challenge the long-held notion that the human pattern of brain asymmetry is unique. They found the same asymmetry pattern in chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans. However, humans were the most variable in this pattern. This suggests that lateralized, uniquely human cognitive abilities evolved by adapting a presumably ancestral asymmetry pattern.
Researchers from the school of Geographical Sciences at Guangzhou University have revealed the stark decline of China's intertidal wetlands by studying archives of satellite imaging data. The area of these wetlands reduced by 37.62% between the 1970s and 2015, placing these vulnerable yet valuable ecosystems and the species they support under increased pressure from anthropogenic development and future sea level rise.