Researchers from Tokyo Medical and Dental University (TMDU) have found that the urinary secretion of uromodulin, a kidney-specific protein, can be increased by the hormone vasopressin via certain signaling pathways. Increasing the urinary secretion of uromodulin may protect against urinary tract infections and kidney stones, while the resulting lower uromodulin levels in kidney cells may help to prevent hypertension and chronic kidney disease.
In recent years, significant progress has been made towards the use of high-resolution peripheral computed tomography (HR-pQCT) imaging in research, and new potential for applications in the clinic have emerged. This new publication by the Joint IOF-ASBMR-ECTS HR-pQCT Working Group provides an important overview of current clinical applications of HR-pQCT in adults, valuable guidance on interpretation of results, and a summary of novel applications and future directions.
Many diseases caused by a dysregulated immune system, such as allergies, asthma and autoimmunity, can be traced back to events in the first few months after birth. To date, the mechanisms behind the development of the immune system have not been fully understood. Now, researchers at Karolinska Institutet show a connection between breast milk, beneficial gut bacteria and the development of the immune system. The study is published in Cell.
What The Study Did: This study examined whether mandatory daily employee symptom data collection can be used as an early alert surveillance system to estimate COVID-19 hospitalizations in communities where employees live.
New York City neighborhoods that had higher levels of socioeconomic disadvantage experienced more COVID-19 infections and deaths, according to Mount Sinai scientists who created a neighborhood-level COVID-19 inequity index.
What The Study Did: Researchers evaluated the association of convalescent plasma treatment with 30-day mortality in hospitalized adults with hematologic (blood) cancers and COVID-19.
What The Study Did: The findings of this study suggest that the increased mortality among Black patients hospitalized with COVID-19 is associated with the hospitals at which Black patients disproportionately received care.
Researchers from Osaka University, along with international collaborators in Europe, have identified Thrombospondin-2 as a serum biomarker that confirms and stratifies the progressive complications of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. This research may form the basis of a new noninvasive approach that can provide an early warning system for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and advanced fibrosis and may predict progression to cirrhosis, liver failure and even cancer.
Inhibiting necroptosis, a form of cell death, could yield a new treatment approach for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), an inflammatory lung condition also known as emphysema, new research shows. The study, by a team of Australian and Belgian researchers, revealed elevated levels of necroptosis in patients with COPD. By inhibiting necroptosis activity in the lung tissue of COPD patients the researchers found a significant reduction in chronic airway inflammation and lung damage.
The SARS-CoV-2 virus that causes COVID-19 may have the ability to reactivate dormant tuberculosis (TB). In a novel study scientists report in The American Journal of Pathology that infection with a specific coronavirus strain reactivated dormant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in mice. This knowledge may help to develop new vaccines for COVID-19 and avoid a potential global tuberculosis epidemic.