New research suggests that targeted use of behavioural 'nudges' can encourage people to conserve water. Researchers at the University of East Anglia (UEA) found that rather than giving people general information about the importance of saving water, emphasising the water conserving actions of others in the same social group -- for example university students or local residents -- encourages similar behaviour changes and reduces water demand.
In a paper presented at the 2018 Conference on Neural Information Processing Systems (NeurIPS), researchers from The University of Texas at Austin described the results of experiments that used artificial neural networks to predict with greater accuracy than ever before how different areas in the brain respond to specific words. The work employed a type of recurrent neural network called long short-term memory (LSTM) that includes in its calculations the relationships of each word to what came before to better preserve context.
'In describing the miscarriage itself, the men are speaking to a societal expectation that pregnancy is easy and smooth,' Horstman said. 'When describing their role in the experience, the men speak to the traditional expectation that they should be heterosexual and tough. But without intention, we see that men's emotions are being pushed aside to help their partner, when in reality these men are also suffering.'
New research addresses limitations of prior autism spectrum disorder (ASD) studies on facial emotion recognition by using five distinct facial emotions in unfamiliar and familiar (mom) faces to test the influence of familiarity in children with and without ASD. Findings show no differences in the two groups of children and reveal that children with ASD are perceptive to their mother's emotions, which may indicate greater potential to learn and socialize with people they know rather than with strangers.
Labiodental sounds, such as F and V, have been known to be rarely met in hunter-gatherer languages. To understand how this has occurred, the authors undertook a massive statistical inquiry. 2,400 languages were analyzed, and a biomechanical model of mouth and lip movements was created.
Knowledge of the facts is called factive knowledge. In the phrase 'He knows [that it is warm outside]', the embedded clause is assumed to be true. However, in the phrase 'It seems [that it is warm outside]', the embedded clause is presupposed to be false or counterfactive.
Diet-induced changes in the human bite resulted in new sounds such as 'f' in languages all over the world, a study by an international team led by researchers at the University of Zurich has shown. The findings contradict the theory that the range of human sounds has remained fixed throughout human history.
A new Northwestern University study provides the first evidence that infants' increasingly precise perceptual tuning to the sounds of their native language sets constraints on the range of human languages they will link to cognition.
Scientists employed fMRI to record the brain activity of participants speaking with another human or with a robot. Their findings show that, when compared to a similar conversation with a robot, dialogue with a fellow human significantly increases activity in the amygdalae, basal ganglia, and hypothalamus. The first two of these brain structures are involved in cerebral reward circuits while the third synthesizes oxytocin, a neuropeptide that specifically promotes the formation of social bonds.
Speakers tend to say 'uh' before uncommon words ('uh... automobile') rather than common words ('car'). In a new eye-tracking study, researchers from the Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics show that listeners use this information to predict an uncommon word upon hearing 'uh.' Moreover, when an 'atypical' speaker says 'uh' before common words ('uh... car'), listeners learn to predict common words after 'uh' -- but only with a native speaker.