For the first time, researchers have successfully created airway basal stem cells in vitro from induced pluripotent stem cells by reprogramming blood cells taken from patients. Given that airway basal cells are defined as stem cells of the airways because they can regenerate the airway epithelium in response to injury, this study may help accelerate research on diseases impacting the airway, including COVID-19, influenza, asthma and cystic fibrosis.
Scientists from Scripps Research have devised a method for mapping in unprecedented detail the thickets of slippery sugar molecules that help shield HIV from the immune system. Mapping these shields will give researchers a more complete understanding of why antibodies react to some spots on the virus but not others, and may shape the design of new vaccines that target the most vulnerable sites on viruses.
Stress is present everywhere, even bacteria and plant cells have to cope with it. They express various specific stress proteins, but how exactly this line of defense works is often not clear. A group of scientists headed by Professor Dirk Schneider of Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) has now discovered a protective mechanism in cyanobacteria as well as in chloroplasts of plant cells.
Researchers develop a new method to isolate specific cells, and in the process find a more robust fluorescent protein.
What about the kidneys make them a hotspot for COVID-19's cytokine storm? A research team says it's the presence of a protein found on specialized renal transport cells.
People with diabetes -- especially those with diabetic kidney disease -- are among the most at risk for COVID-19. A new study peered inside the kidney cells of COVID-19 patients and diabetic kidney disease patients and made a surprising discovery: Similar molecular processes were activated in both sets of patients. The results suggest that diabetes may predispose patients to SARS-CoV-2 infection or more severe COVID-19 by spurring biological processes used by the virus to infect and replicate.
Moving around in the half-light is difficult but not impossible. To help us in this undertaking we have the rods, a type of photoreceptors present in the retina of vertebrates, capable of detecting very low lights. They are the protagonists of the new study published in PNAS by a team of researchers of SISSA and CNR-Iom which reveals new and essential details of how the retina works and in particular photoreceptors.
Researchers have discovered a gene that is critical for the development of Ewing sarcoma, a rare type of developmental cancer that presents in bones and soft tissues. Exploring the pharmacological inhibition of RING1B as a clinical therapy to treat Ewing sarcoma could open the door for new treatments for the rare disease.
All biological processes are in some way pH-dependent. Our human bodies, and those of other organisms, need to maintain specific- and constant- pH regulation in order to function. Changes in pH can have serious biological consequences or, as researchers at the Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology (QIBEBT), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) found, serious benefits.
UC San Diego researchers use experimental artificial intelligence system called DrugCell to predict the best approach to treating cancer.