People who sleep fewer than 7 hours per night have lower levels of gene-regulating molecules, or microRNAs, which help dampen down inflammation in cells and support vascular health.
Researchers at the University of Washington unveiled a new strategy to keep proteins intact and functional in synthetic biomaterials for tissue engineering. Their approach modifies proteins at a specific point so that they can be chemically tethered to the scaffold using light. Since the tether can also be cut by laser light, this method can create evolving patterns of signal proteins throughout a biomaterial scaffold to grow tissues made up of different types of cells.
Scientists have identified a new mechanism that accelerates aging in the brain and gives rise to the most devastating biological features of Alzheimer's disease. The findings also unify three long-standing theories behind the disease's origins into one cohesive narrative that explains how healthy cells become sick and gives scientists new avenues for screening compounds designed to slow or stop disease progression, something existing medications cannot do.
Medical University of South Carolina investigators have exploited a metabolic quirk of certain cancers known as glutamine addiction to identify a potential new therapy for esophageal cancer. After characterizing the pathway involved in cancer progression, they tested a new combination treatment in both cells and animal models, with promising results. The next step is to secure funding to bring the new combination regimen to clinical trial. Their findings are reported in Nature Communications.
A team from Harvard University, Marine Biological Laboratory, and collaborators show how the rod-shaped bacteria Bacillus subtilis maintains its precise diameter while growing end to end.
UC San Diego researchers discover new role for epidermal growth factor receptor in blood stem cell development, a crucial key to being able to generate them in the laboratory, and circumvent the need for bone marrow donation.
A collaborative research team from Harvard's Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering and Harvard Medical School (HMS) has now developed 'Signal Amplification by Exchange Reaction' (SABER), a highly programmable and practical method that significantly enhances the sensitivity as well as customization and multiplexing capabilities of FISH analysis.
Over one-third of all FDA-approved drugs act on a specific family of proteins: G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). Drugs to treat high blood pressure, asthma, cancer, diabetes and myriad other conditions target GPCRs throughout the body--but a recent study shows what happens next. In results published in Cell, researchers outline the timeline of events, including precisely when and how different parts of a GPCR interacts with its G protein signaling partners.
A new discovery made mainly in mice could provide new options for getting the insulin-making 'factories' of the pancreas going again when diabetes and obesity have slowed them down. It could offer new pathways to ramping up insulin supply to get metabolism back on track in people with Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes, and obesity.
Many patients with chronic illnesses such as AIDS, cancer, autoimmune diseases, suffer from an additional disease called cachexia. The complex, still poorly understood syndrome, with uncontrollable weight loss and shrinkage of both fat reserves and muscle tissue is thought to contribute to premature death. Researchers at CeMM Research Center for Molecular Medicine of the Austrian Academy of Sciences describe the molecular mechanisms of cachexia during viral infection and identify a surprising role for immune cells.