Twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) occurs in around 10-15% of pregnancies with twins that share the same placenta. Typically, this syndrome appears before 24 weeks' gestation due to abnormal vascular communications located on the surface of the placenta. As a result, blood circulation is not balanced between the two twins, dramatically decreasing their chances of survival.
An improved urine-testing system for people suffering from kidney stones inspired by nature and proposed by researchers from Penn State and Stanford University may enable patients to receive results within 30 minutes instead of the current turnaround time of a week or more.
High-throughput platform identifies complex conditions with biomaterial compositions, and mechanical and chemical stimuli that help stem cells produce more robust cartilage.
Researchers have succeeded in detecting anti-avian influenza virus antibody in blood serum within 20 minutes, using a portable analyzer they have developed to conduct rapid on-site bio tests. If a suitable reagent is developed, this technology could be used to detect antibodies against SARS-CoV-2, the causative virus of COVID-19.
The carbon-hydrogen bond -- 2/3 of all bonds in hydrocarbons -- has defied chemists' attempts to open it up and add new chemical groups. A UC Berkeley team has now cracked the strongest of C-H bonds, those on a molecule's terminal carbon. The reaction catalyst is an iridium atom to break the bond and a methyl group to add a boron compound. Boron is easily exchanged for other groups, allowing additions to hydrocarbons and natural products.
Researchers of Universitat Rovira I Virgili and Harvard Medical School have demonstrated the association between the consumption of omega 3 and the reduction in the risk of suffering cardiovascular events through the analysis of lipoprotein samples from 26,034 women, the largest and most detailed study ever carried out.
Engineers have demonstrated a method for ensuring that an increasingly popular method of genetic identification called "DNA fingerprinting" remains secure against inadvertent mistakes or malicious attacks in the field. The technique relies on introducing genetic "barcodes" to DNA samples as they are collected and securely sending information crucial to identifying these barcodes to technicians in the laboratory.
Scientists have discovered how liver cancer spreads, but they haven't yet learned how liver cancer cells are born. A team of Okayama University scientists has now established a model that demonstrates how, given the right body environment and without genetic mutation, normal stem cells can convert into cancer stem cells, which in turn proliferate and cause the cancer tumor to grow. Their model could help develop targeted drugs and therapies for liver cancer.
Scientists could gain insight into atypical sex development in vertebrates, including humans, by studying how nutrition affects sex changes in fish larvae.
A group of Hokkaido University researchers has developed a paper-based device that can easily and cheaply measure lithium ion concentration in blood, which could greatly help bipolar disorder patients.