For the first time, the cells of fungi can also be analysed using a relatively simple microscopic method. Researchers from Würzburg and Cordoba present the innovation in the journal Frontiers in Microbiology.
Pregnant women who deliver early are more likely to have a varied vaginal microbiome, especially in their first trimester. Combining data from several studies, the researchers analyzed information across a wide range of women in terms of ethnicity and stage of pregnancy and also highlight the specific bacteria associated with premature births. The authors hope these findings could help identify women at higher risk of giving birth prematurely.
Researchers at Kanazawa University and Tsukuba University report in Nanoscale that the physical properties of extracellular bacterial membrane vesicles are significantly diverse. The properties for a single type of bacterium as well as for different types are found to be highly heterogeneous.
The Russian side is represented by Structural Biology Lab (Kazan Federal University) and Institute of Proteins (Russian Academy of Sciences). This particular paper tackles the issue of stress resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. The results can help in finding new antibiotics.
No vaccines exist that protect people against infections by coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2, which causes COVID-19, or the ones that cause SARS and MERS. As COVID-19 continues to wreak havoc, many labs around the world have developed a laser-like focus on understanding the virus and finding the best strategy for stopping it.
In the plant sciences, CRISPR--the bacterial gene editing toolbox that enables more precise and efficient editing of genomic sequences than previously possible--has initially been applied with genetic model organisms like Arabidopsis thaliana. While these species are valuable, they represent only a small sample of plant diversity. Researchers at the University of Florida, Gainesville, review the prospects for expanding CRISPR use in nongenetic model plant species, many of which are economically and biologically important.
A team working to combat the COVID-19 virus has a system that will unlock researchers' ability to more quickly develop and evaluate developing vaccines, diagnose infected patients and explore whether or how the virus has evolved. The scientists developed the system by engineering a reverse genetic system for SARS coronavirus 2, or SARS-CoV-2, that is causing the current COVID-19 pandemic. The study is currently available in Cell Host & Microbe.
Researchers from Washington University in St. Louis studied the gut microbiomes of wild apes in the Republic of Congo, of captive apes in zoos in the US, and of people from around the world and discovered that lifestyle is more important than geography or even species in determining the makeup of the gut microbiome.
Clemson University researchers have conducted a study that may someday lead to better cavity prevention measures and treatments. The team examined the oral mycobiome by taking a site-specific approach -- looking at both tooth and mouth health -- which enabled them to categorize each plaque sample along a continuum. They identified 139 species of fungus that live in human dental plaque, including nine that were strongly associated with dental health.
A new therapy could combat persistent joint infections in horses, potentially saving them from years of pain. Morris Animal Foundation-funded researchers at North Carolina State University have developed a platelet-rich plasma (PRP) lysate that, when teamed with antibiotics, can eradicate bacterial biofilms common in joint infections. The therapy could also be applied to other species, including humans and dogs. The team presented their findings in the Journal of Orthopaedic Research.