Neuroscientists from the Salk Institute and UC San Diego have discovered that at least six types of mammals--from mice to cats--distinguish odors in roughly the same way, using circuitry in the brain that's evolutionarily preserved across species.
An international team of researchers have identified and described two new frog species and have named one of them after a University of Central Florida professor.
Under physiological conditions, only certain sequences within the genome, called flipons, are capable of dynamically forming either right- or left-handed DNA. When a flipon is left-handed, genes change the transcripts they produce, affecting how cells respond to their environment. The outcomes depend on both the shape and sequence of a gene's DNA, each feature encoding a different subset of genetic information: one dynamic, the other static. Both flipons and codons are subject to natural selection.
A team at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center has identified a gene that could make immunotherapy treatments, specifically checkpoint inhibitors, work for a wider variety of cancer patients. The study, published today in Developmental Cell, found that when the DUX4 gene is expressed in cancer cells, it can prevent the cancer from being recognized and destroyed by the immune system.
Researchers identify changes in enzymes that may contribute to lung damage in rare genetic disorder.
A new review article appearing in the journal Nature Reviews Microbiology highlights the evolution and ecology of plant viruses. Arvind Varsani, a researcher at ASU's Biodesign Institute joins an international team to explore many details of viral dynamics. They describe the subtle interplay between three components of the viral infection process, the virus itself, the plant cell hosts infected by the virus and the vectors that act as go-betweens -- an intricate system evolving over some 450 million years.
Bacteria do not simply perish in hunger phases fortuitously; rather, the surrounding cells have a say as well. A research team from the Technical University of Munich (TUM) has now discovered that two factors, above all, decide over life and death: the energy required to continue living and the efficiency with which surviving cells can recycle biomass from dead cells.
For decades, researchers have chased ways to study biological machines. Every mechanical movement -- from contracting a muscle to replicating DNA -- relies on molecular motors that take near-undetectable steps. Trying to see them move is like trying to watch a soccer game taking place on the moon. Now, with DNA origami helicopters, researchers have captured the first recorded rotational steps of a molecular motor as it moved from one DNA base pair to another.
Scientists at the University Würzburg and University Hospital of Würzburg found that megakaryocytes act as 'bouncers' and thus modulate bone marrow niche properties and cell migration dynamics. The study was published in July in the journal Haematologica.
Ángel R. Nebreda's team (IRB Barcelona) publishes a study in the journal Nature Communications addressing the role of the p38 protein in angiogenesis -- the formation of new blood vessels -- a critical process that fuels tumor cells and allows them to grow and eventually develop metastases. A greater understanding of how new blood vessel formation is regulated could help to improve chemotherapy treatments for cancer, as well as to develop more efficient angiogenic therapies for other diseases.