Researchers from Tokyo Medical and Dental University (TMDU) have demonstrated that delivering oxygen via the rectum as a gas or in an oxygen-rich liquid can support oxygen provision to organs and tissues during respiratory failure. Such "enteral ventilation" increased oxygenation, improved behavior and prolonged survival in experimental mouse and pig models of respiratory failure. Further research may allow its clinical application in human patients as a less invasive alternative to ventilators and artificial lungs.
Scientists from China have sequenced and analyzed the genome of lavender to provide insights into what causes its distinct aroma. Their findings shed light into the evolution of this uniquely fragrant plant, which could pave the way for creating improved lavender varieties besides adding to existing knowledge on the evolution, phytochemistry, and ecology of Lamiaceae, the plant family to which lavender belongs.
Kakshine is an entirely new DNA fluorescent imaging probe with a wide range of capabilities that make it ideal for a range of imaging applications, including cutting edge two-photon excitement imaging and super high-resolution STED imaging. Its ability to use low phototoxicity visible light makes it ideal for in vitro and in vivo applications, and it is expected to find use in a variety of medical and life science contexts.
Some nonpathogenic microorganisms can stimulate plant immune responses without damaging the plants, which allows them to act like plant vaccines, but screening microorganisms for such properties has traditionally been time-consuming and expensive. Now, a team of scientists from Tokyo University of Science has developed a screening method based on cultured plant cells that makes such testing easier. This may lead to microorganism-based crop protection methods that reduce the need for chemical pesticides.
Climate change is exacerbating problems like habitat loss and temperatures swings that have already pushed many animal species to the brink. But can scientists predict which animals will be able to adapt and survive? Using genome sequencing, researchers from McGill University show that some fish, like the threespine stickleback, can adapt very rapidly to extreme seasonal changes. Their findings could help scientists forecast the evolutionary future of these populations.
SARS-CoV-2 is critically dependent on a special mechanism for the production of its proteins. A collaborative team led by a research group at ETH Zurich obtained molecular insights into this process and demonstrated that it can be inhibited by chemical compounds, thereby significantly reducing viral replication in infected cells.
Researchers from TMDU, collaborating with scientists from MBL and RIKEN, developed a new probe, POLArIS, for real-time live-cell imaging that reveals the orientation of molecules and is expected to be applicable to a wide range of cell types and specimens. They tested POLArIS in starfish early embryos and discovered the existence of a new F-actin cellular architecture, FLARE, extending alongside the astral microtubules to the cell cortex. This may provide answers to some of the most fundamental questions regarding cell division.
University of Massachusetts Amherst neuroscientists examining genetically identified neurons in a songbird's forebrain discovered a remarkable landscape of physiology, auditory coding and network roles that mirrored those in the brains of mammals.
A Z-RNA nanoswitch, less than 5 nanometer in length, flips from the right-handed A-RNA helix (?on") to the left-handed Z-RNA helix (?off") to selectively turn "off" immune responses against self RNAs, while allowing those against viruses to continue. Surprisingly, the Z-RNA nanoswitch sequence is encoded by "junk DNA". The Z-RNA nanoswitch is used by some cancers to silence anti-tumor immune responses. In other cases, a malfunction of the Z-RNA nanoswitch causes inflammatory disease.
Research published in Nature reveals insights into how the body maintains balance with "good" gut bacteria that allows these microbes to flourish in the intestine but keeps them out of tissues and organs where they're not supposed to be.