Toxic protein inhibits cell wall synthesis in rival bacteria. Discovery helps explain how pathogens cause imbalances in established microbial communities and could pave the way to the development of novel anti-microbial compounds.
Researchers at Tokyo Medical and Dental University (TMDU) working with an international team have developed a Polygenic Risk Score using previous genomic studies that may help predict drug-induced liver injury. This score was validated on genomic data, cell cultures and organoids for several potentially hepatotoxic drugs, and may inform a screening test that can predict adverse responses both to approved medications in clinical practice as well as to drug candidates in preliminary experimental trials.
Researh teams of Tokyo Medical and Dental University (TMDU) and Harvard Medical School (HMS) have uncovered how to increase the efficacy of anti-PD-L1 immunotherapy. Using a combination of molecular, biochemical, and bioinformatics approaches, they discovered that the nuclear localization of PD-L1 is controlled by acetylation at a single, specific, Lys site. In the nucleus, PD-L1 controls the expression of immune related genes. Therefore, targeting PD-L1 nuclear localization could enhance the efficacy of PD-1/PD-L1 blockade based immunotherapies.
Genome Biology and Evolution's latest virtual issue highlights recent research published in the journal within the field of human genetics.
Addressing concerns about gene drive releases in the wild, UC San Diego scientists and their colleagues have developed two new genetic systems that halt or eliminate gene drives after release. Created in fruit flies, the e-CHACRs and ERACRs are powerful gene drive control mechanisms that were meticulously developed and tested at the genetic and molecular levels.
A dangerous protein named SNAI2 helps cancers metastasize and shields cancer from both the immune system and chemotherapy. Worse, SNAI2 is in a family of proteins that are notoriously hard to fight with drugs. But now Princeton University's Yibin Kang and his colleagues have found a way to use the cell's recycling system to control SNAI2, providing a new possibility for treatments.
A team of international collaborators identifies a new cause of syndromic microcephaly caused by LMNB1 mutations that disrupt the nuclear envelope. The report is published in the October issue of the American Journal of Human Genetics.
Current research suggests that more complex life-forms, including humans, evolved from a symbiosis event of Bacteria and another single-celled organism known as Archaea. However, evidence of a transition period in which the two organisms mixed where nowhere to be found. That is, until now. In the deep waters of the Black Sea, a team of scientists from NIOZ and Utrecht University found microbes that can make membrane lipids of unexpected origin.
Princeton researchers Rachel Kaletsky, Rebecca Moore, Coleen Murphy and colleagues have discovered that the microscopic roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans recognizes a small RNA made by a pathogenic bacterium, and uses that RNA to convey learned avoidance of the bacterium to offspring. Their work appears in the Sept. 9, 2020 issue of Nature.
Although hallucinogenic drugs have been studied for decades, little is known about the underlying mechanisms in the brain by which they induce their effects. A paper publishing September 17 in the journal Cell reveals the first X-ray crystallography structure of LSD bound to its target in the brain, the serotonin receptor. The paper also includes the first cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure of a prototypical hallucinogen coupled with the entire serotonin receptor complex.