Enteroviruses are one of the most common human pathogens leading to high number of acute and chronic infections worldwide. The physiological events leading to successful enterovirus infection are still poorly understood. Researchers at the Nanoscience Center at the University of Jyväskylä and at the University of Helsinki have found significant new information concerning the role of Albumin and ions in host cell vesicles that promote genome release and efficient infection. The research was published in the Journal of Virology in August.
The host range of the influenza A virus (IAV) is restricted by dysregulated expression of the M viral gene segment, according to a study published August 15, 2019 in the open-access journal PLOS Pathogens by Anice Lowen and John Steel of Emory University School of Medicine, and colleagues.
New research led by scientists at The Rockefeller University in New York may help explain why Zika virus infection causes birth defects in some children but not others. The study, which will be published August 14 in the Journal of Experimental Medicine, suggests that the risk of developing an abnormally small head (microcephaly) depends on the types of antibody produced by pregnant mothers in response to Zika infection.
Walter and Eliza Hall Institute researchers have identified a molecular switch that impacts immune responses to viral infections, and whether or not protective antibodies are produced. The team also made the surprising discovery that the immune system protects against different viruses via distinct pathways. Their findings could lead to better strategies to develop vaccines for previously hard-to-prevent viruses.
A new study analyzing samples from patients with and without acute flaccid myelitis (AFM) provides additional evidence for an association between the rare but often serious condition that causes muscle weakness and paralysis, and infection with non-polio enteroviruses. NIAID, part of the NIH, funded the research, which was conducted by investigators at Columbia University's Center for Infection and Immunity and investigators from the CDC. The findings are reported in the online journal mBio.
Scientists at the Center for Infection and Immunity (CII) at Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the University of California San Diego report antibody evidence in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) that points to enterovirus (EV) infection as a cause for acute flaccid myelitis (AFM), a disease responsible for partially paralyzing more than 560 children in the United States since 2014. Results of the study appear in the journal mBio.
A team from the Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique (INRS) has made a scientific breakthrough regarding the virulence strategy employed by the Leishmania parasite to infect cells of the immune system. This microorganism is responsible for Leishmaniasis, a chronic parasitic disease that affects more than 12 million people worldwide.
Ninety-nine percent of cervical cancers are caused by human papillomavirus (HPV). More than 200 HPVs associated with varying degrees of cancer risk complicate diagnosis and treatment. A report in The Journal of Molecular Diagnostics describes a new 'two-for-one' diagnostic approach that not only detects the type of HPV infection, but also indicates precancerous markers. This test may improve the ability to diagnose the riskiest forms of HPV infection, provide rapid results at low cost, and help avoid unnecessary diagnostic procedures.
An international research team has now uncovered new insight into how safety mechanisms keep genetic parasites in check so that they do not damage the genome. In the long term, the results can help to understand and remedy some of the genetic problems in humans, such as low fertility.
A new study identified and then reverse engineered the molecular properties shared by antibodies that are particularly efficient at inactivating or 'neutralizing' Lassa virus. The team's findings also revealed that most neutralizing antibodies bind to the same spot on the surface of Lassa virus, providing a map for rational vaccine design.