Thirty state of the art IPCC-climate models predict dramatically different climates for the Northern Hemisphere, especially Europe. An analysis of the range of responses now reveals that the differences are mostly down to the individual model's simulations of changes to the North Atlantic ocean currents and not only -- as normally assumed -- atmospheric changes.
For the first time, researchers have used precariously-balanced rocks to set the formal design earthquake motions for a major existing engineered structure--the Clyde Dam, the largest concrete dam in New Zealand.
Fearsome and powerful, hurricanes can wreak massive destruction when they hit land. But while most hurricanes then weaken, others can strengthen again into extratropical cyclones and caused further damage inland. Now, researchers at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University have used simulations to uncover the presence of a cold core inside decaying hurricanes - an unexpected discovery that could help forecasters predict the level of extreme weather that communities farther inland may face.
Not only the 11-year cycle, but also all other periodic solar activity fluctuations can be clocked by planetary attractive forces, a conclusion drawn by Dr. Frank Stefani and colleagues at HZDR and the Institute of Continuous Media Mechanics in Perm, Russia. With new model calculations, they are proposing a comprehensive explanation of known sun cycles for the first time. They also reveal the longest fluctuations in activity over thousands of years as a chaotic process.
Pine Island Glacier's ice shelf lost about one-fifth of its total area between 2017 and 2020, in three dramatic collapses. Meanwhile the glacier sped up by 12%. The rest of the ice shelf, the authors say, could disappear much sooner than previous studies had suggested.
Researchers from Skoltech have designed and conducted experiments measuring gas permeability under various conditions for ice-containing sediments mimicking permafrost. Their results can be useful both in tracing methane emission in high latitudes and in modeling and testing techniques for gas production from Arctic reservoirs. The study also showed that the dissociation of gas hydrates can lead to permeability increase. This, in turn, will lead to methane emissions into the atmosphere, causing a variety of environmental and technological impacts.
The type of material present under glaciers has a big impact on how fast they slide towards the ocean. Scientists face a challenging task to acquire data of this under-ice landscape. Choosing the wrong equations for the under-ice landscape can have the same effect on the predicted contribution to sea-level rise as a warming of several degrees, says Henning Åkesson, who led a new published study on Petermann Glacier in Greenland.
The Uttarakhand region of India experienced a humanitarian tragedy on Feb. 7, 2021, when a wall of debris and water barreled down the Ronti Gad, Rishiganga and Dhauliganga river valleys. This debris flow destroyed two hydropower facilities and left more than 200 people dead or missing. A self-organized coalition of 53 scientists, including researchers from the University of Washington, came together in the days following the disaster to investigate the cause, scope and impacts.
On February 7, 2021, a massive slide in the Uttarakhand region of India led to the destruction of two hydropower generating facilities and left over two hundred people dead or missing. A self-organized coalition of fifty-three scientists came together in the days following the disaster to investigate the cause, scope, and impact of the flood and landslide. The researchers suggest that climate change is contributing to such events happening more frequently.
Physicists led by the University of Iowa report definitive evidence of how auroras are created. In experiments, the physicists demonstrated the physical mechanisms for the acceleration of electrons by Alfven waves under conditions corresponding to Earth's auroral magnetosphere. Results appear in the journal Nature Communications.