Pregnant people are often excluded from research without clear justification, even when there is little harm to the fetus in minimal-risk research. In this issue of Ethics & Human Research, ob/gyn Amina White and colleages survey current and former institutional review board personnel to find out their interpretations of "minimal risk" to identify factors that might influence IRB decisions to approve research with those who are pregnant.
Also in this issue, an ethics review in the Covid-19 era; designs for an observational toxicology study involving intoxicated patients; and an essay on mamking metrics meaningful in human research protection programs.
Holly A. Taylor, Kathryn M. Porter, Erin Talati Paquette, Jennifer B. McCormick, Emma Tumilty, Jason F. Arnold, Kayte Spector-Bagdady, Marion Danis, Debra Brandt, Jina Shah, Benjamin S. Wilfond, Lisa M. Lee
Table of contents of the September-October 2021 Ethics & Human Research:
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