Scientists have developed a technique called plasmon engineering to create nanomaterials with near-atomic scale control of patterning in silicon. This new research used a specific plasmon engineering method, aberration-corrected electron beam lithography, to control the optical and electronic properties of silicon. This approach could one day be applied to industrial applications.
Scientists demonstrated that ultrathin films of samarium nickel oxide can mask the thermal radiation emitted by hot materials. This is due to the material undergoing a gradual transition from insulator to conductor. This study shows that quantum materials such as samarium nickel oxide can manage thermal radiation with potential applications in infrared camouflage, privacy shielding, and heat transfer control.
Scientists have learned how to place crystalline defects in new materials with atomic-scale precision. This enables materials that can control excitons—energy carriers similar to subatomic particles. New research reveals how to create local energy wells that “capture” the excitons. This small but important step could lead to smaller, more efficient components for optical telecommunications.
- Chemistry of Materials
Researchers have for the first time used a quantum computer to generate accurate results from materials science simulations that can be verified with practical techniques. Eventually, such simulations on quantum computers could be more accurate and complex than simulations on classical digital computers.
New research paves the way to a systematic way to design quantum algorithms that outperform conventional algorithms. The research involves logic gates, the fundamental building blocks of conventional digital computing and quantum computing systems. This new research is the first attempt to determine the number of logic gates that quantum states need to process information.
- Advanced Quantum Technologies
Chemists create catalysts for use in industry and other applications. One of the methods to create these catalysts is by using light to break down organometallic compounds, a process called photodissociation. This study used ultrafast infrared spectroscopy to study how ultraviolet light photodissociates gas phase iron pentacarbonyl. These insights may help scientists design new photocatalysts.
Scientists generally expect species networks to be more stable under climate change if they have many species connected by many lines of interaction. This study investigated this pattern in microbial interactions in soils. It found that microbes might interact in more complex ways when soil is warmer, indicating the possibility that warming could lead to more robust networks.
- Nature Climate Change
Researchers have demonstrated the production, purification, and potential application of cerium-134. The isotope decays into lanthanum-134, which is useful for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. The results mean that cerium-134 could support medical treatments based on actinium-225 or thorium-227.
One isotope of the extremely rare element Astatine has shown promise in the treatment of malignant brain tumors, ovarian cancer, advanced blood and lymph system cancers. However, because of its short half-life, scientists need a rapid system with high yield to recover the isotope, At-211, for medical use. Scientists have developed a new purification system that results in a high purity, high yield recovery of At-211.